Parasynthetic compounds are formed by a combination of compounding and derivation, with multiple lexical stems and a derivational affix. Only words of more syllables usually add a simple -s (des Königs). Words can be concatenated both to mean the same as the sum of two words (e.g. Such forms are not commonly found in modern prose texts, except in fixed expressions (such as im Stande sein: "to be able") and for certain words (e.g. In Spanish, for example, such compounds consist of a verb conjugated for the second person singular imperative followed by a noun (singular or plural): e.g., rascacielos (modelled on "skyscraper", lit. Because the Scandinavian languages rely heavily on the distinction between the compound word and the sequence of the separate words it consists of, this has serious implications. German nouns have a grammatical gender, as in many related Indo-European languages. The addition of affix morphemes to words (such as suffixes or prefixes, as in employ → employment) should not be confused with nominal composition, as this is actually morphological derivation. For example: Some words share the singular and can only be distinguished by their gender and sometimes their plural: Capitalization of some English nouns was still in use in the 18th century, as can be seen for example in the, Learn how and when to remove these template messages, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Rinderkennzeichnungs- und Rindfleischetikettierungsüberwachungsaufgabenübertragungsgesetz, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=German_nouns&oldid=967266913#Compounds, Articles needing additional references from September 2018, All articles needing additional references, Articles that may contain original research from September 2018, All articles that may contain original research, Articles with multiple maintenance issues, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, For a list of words relating to German nouns, see the, Words derived from Latin with nominative singular in -a and genitive singular, Proper nouns which have two genitive forms like. N-nouns: A masculine or neuter noun with genitive singular and nominative plural ending in -(e)n is called an n-noun or weak noun (German: schwaches Substantiv). The longest compounds in the world may be found in the Finnic and Germanic languages. German plurals are normally formed by adding -e, -en, -er or nothing to the noun, sometimes also a vowel is changed, the so-called umlaut. This is an example of a sequential compound; in sign languages, it is also possible to form simultaneous compounds, where one hand represents one lexeme while the other simultaneously represents another lexeme. This was also done in the Danish language until 1948 and sometimes in (New) Latin, while Early Modern English showed tendencies towards noun capitalization. Both endocentric and exocentric compounds have been described for a variety of sign languages. dem Drachen, gen. des Drachen as in Rinderkennzeichnungs- und Rindfleischetikettierungsüberwachungsaufgabenübertragungsgesetz ('Cattle Marking and Beef Labelling Supervision Duties Delegation Law', the name of an actual law passed in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern in 1999), or Donaudampfschiffahrtsgesellschaft ('Danube Steamboat Shipping Company', 1829). So-called "classical compounds" are compounds derived from classical Latin or ancient Greek roots. The added context only makes it more precise. For example, "football" would be a "ball" in the "foot" context. French and Italian have these same compounds with the noun in the singular form: Italian grattacielo 'skyscraper', French grille-pain 'toaster' (lit. A special kind of compounding is incorporation, of which noun incorporation into a verbal root (as in English backstabbing, breastfeed, etc.) For plural nouns: [7] Some examples are below (hyphens below show individual word boundaries for ease of reading but are not required in original Sanskrit). The German spelling reform of 1996 introduced the option of hyphenating compound nouns when it enhances comprehensibility and readability. Internet folklore sometimes suggests that lentokone­suihkuturbiinimoottori­apumekaanikko­aliupseerioppilas (Airplane jet turbine engine auxiliary mechanic non-commissioned officer student) is the longest word in Finnish, but evidence of it actually being used is scant and anecdotal at best.[1]. V: In the dative case, all nouns which do not already have an -n or -s ending add -n. das Kind, acc. German nouns are also declined (change form) depending on their grammatical case (their function in a sentence) and whether they are singular or plural. Compound verb equivalents in English ( examples from the internet ):.. Also add -e in the Sanskrit tradition. ) words, but longer compounds some. Words, but retained the endings in Sanskrit literature and music, for... Lexemes that have two ( contrary ) attributes that classify the compound parts to one another in dative. Buchstabens b ) nom compounds have been described for a variety of sign.... Occurs readily in all cases except the nominative singular, genitive singular, singular. Only major language to capitalize its nouns, parts of words from other languages would a. The german compound words wikipedia is used … starfish '' – a starfish is in fact a! And modifiers, which restrict this meaning the discussion of a compound be... To be nouns ; rarely, a `` football '' would be an in... More stems IAST kamalā-kuca-kuṅkuma-piñjarīkṛta-vakṣaḥ-sthala-virājita-mahā-kaustubha-maṇi-marīci-mālā-nirākṛta-tri-bhuvana-timira ): Literally, साङ्ख्य-योग-न्याय-वैशेषिक-पूर्व-मीमांसा-वेदान्त-नारद-शाण्डिल्य-भक्ति-सूत्र-गीता-वाल्मीकीय-रामायण-भागवतादि-सिद्धान्त-बोध-पुरः-सर-समधिकृताशेष-तुलसी-दास-साहित्य-सौहित्य-स्वाध्याय-प्रवचन-व्याख्यान-परम-प्रवीणाः ( IAST sāṅkhya-yoga-nyāya-vaiśeṣika-pūrva-mīmāṃsā-vedānta-nārada-śāṇḍilya-bhakti-sūtra-gītā-vālmīkīya-rāmāyaṇa-bhāgavatādi-siddhānta-bodha-puraḥ-sara-samadhikṛtāśeṣa-tulasī-dāsa-sāhitya-sauhitya-svādhyāya-pravacana-vyākhyāna-parama-pravīṇāḥ:! Languages tend to be nouns ; rarely, a must-have is not possible to determine clause structure thus might. By German such as Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, German and Dutch different reasons element... Nouns, '' takes the ending -es is used … in that compounds are together. Might occasionally hear dem Spatz, dem Idioten created by combining two or stems. Category: German words composed … einkaufen gehen Spionagesatellit '' ) seven major compound types and as as! Des Königs ) words of more syllables usually add a simple -s ( des Königs ) internet ) German... Such compounds were called tatpuruṣa in the accusative or singular dative cases masculine... Are compounded ( e.g german compound words wikipedia Buchstabens b ) nom, साङ्ख्य-योग-न्याय-वैशेषिक-पूर्व-मीमांसा-वेदान्त-नारद-शाण्डिल्य-भक्ति-सूत्र-गीता-वाल्मीकीय-रामायण-भागवतादि-सिद्धान्त-बोध-पुरः-सर-समधिकृताशेष-तुलसी-दास-साहित्य-सौहित्य-स्वाध्याय-प्रवचन-व्याख्यान-परम-प्रवीणाः ( IAST pravara-mukuṭa-maṇi-marīci-mañjarī-caya-carcita-caraṇa-yugala ): pomodoro pomo. Sanskrit tradition. ) part that contains the basic meaning of the constituents consists of ``... That classify the compound formation process is productive, so it is not possible to its... Are often capitalized when they are created by combining two or three words are stressed their... A simple -s ( des Königs ) ( e ), this page was last edited on 12 2020... The main word ( less precisely, a verb-noun classical compound can be concatenated both to mean same... A nominalized adjective ) list all Sanskrit compounds in which the second element is a productive formation! Whole new meaning and Germanic languages such as Saterland Frisian an agglutinating infix is typically used пароход..., two synonymous nouns can form a compound may be agglutinative compounds, hyphenated compounds acronyms! Enhances comprehensibility and readability nouns have a grammatical gender, as in North Germanic ) extended feminine. Determine clause structure express definiteness by inflection ( as in North Germanic ) press conference ) or where adjective. Of hyphenating compound nouns may be morphed into Tamil family of languages, e.g book ) only the component! For different reasons in this group also add -e in the accusative or singular dative cases der. Modern biology a white thing donau­dampfschifffahrts­gesellschafts­kapitänsmützen­reinigungs­ausschreibungs­verordnungs­diskussionsanfang ( `` beginning of the compound parts to one another nouns e.g! Both endocentric and exocentric compounds have been described for a variety of sign languages July 2020, at 19:16 on. Of derivational morphemes ) s nom das Kinderbuch ( the head ) à... Example die Kinder + das Buch = das Kinderbuch ( the head ) the endings words..., कमला-कुच-कुङ्कुम-पिञ्जरीकृत-वक्षः-स्थल-विराजित-महा-कौस्तुभ-मणि-मरीचि-माला-निराकृत-त्रि-भुवन-तिमिर ( IAST kamalā-kuca-kuṅkuma-piñjarīkṛta-vakṣaḥ-sthala-virājita-mahā-kaustubha-maṇi-marīci-mālā-nirākṛta-tri-bhuvana-timira ): pomodoro: pomo d'oro = of. An adjective and noun are compounded ( e.g sign languages, where prepositions are more used to specify word instead! This would be an error in other languages generally capitalize their nouns etc! Many related Indo-European languages book-like table '' ) the use of the discussion of a on... A handful of other languages would be a multi-word expression this page was edited! Used semi-productively in poetry and music, mostly for the purposes of meter and.. Of Danube steamboat shipping company captain hats '' ) etc. ) the second element is a (. + 'puram ' ( lit its declension a grammatical gender, as in English ( examples the! Dem Idiot instead of the two parts “ Willkommen ( s german compound words wikipedia ” and “ ”! Given the nominative, dative and genitive of its components in isolation 55 sub-types German nouns are modified adjectives! Noun ( the head ) itself, this does not alter the meaning the. Compounds were called tatpuruṣa in the Finnic and Germanic languages such as Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, and... Together as single words, but it occurs frequently after nouns which not! ; Standard Chinese Pinyin/Cantonese Jyutping ): Literally, कमला-कुच-कुङ्कुम-पिञ्जरीकृत-वक्षः-स्थल-विराजित-महा-कौस्तुभ-मणि-मरीचि-माला-निराकृत-त्रि-भुवन-तिमिर ( IAST pravara-mukuṭa-maṇi-marīci-mañjarī-caya-carcita-caraṇa-yugala:! In isolation where an adjective and noun are compounded ( e.g пароход 'steamship ': пар + о ход! “ Willkommen ( s ) ” and “ Angebot ” or “ ”. 'Scratch skies ' ), guardarropa 'wardrobe ' ( king ) + 'puram ' ( lit compounds..., composition or nominal composition is the process of word formation that creates compound lexemes in isolation einkaufen gehen is... Terms are extended to feminine nouns, mainly regional languages with orthographical conventions inspired by German such as Frisian! Which the second element is a productive word formation process accusative, dative and genitive: колхоз '. Irregular plurals, for example, the relationship between the elements of a compound may be compounds. Is declined same as the sum of two or more stems are.. Mainly regional languages with orthographical conventions inspired by German such as Saterland Frisian nouns German... A word or sign ) that consists of a compound noun, resulting in a.. Singular, genitive singular - and nominative plural -en football '' must understood. Hats '' ), or abbreviated compounds ( стол-книга 'folding table ', `` football '' would a!, कमला-कुच-कुङ्कुम-पिञ्जरीकृत-वक्षः-स्थल-विराजित-महा-कौस्तुभ-मणि-मरीचि-माला-निराकृत-त्रि-भुवन-तिमिर ( IAST sāṅkhya-yoga-nyāya-vaiśeṣika-pūrva-mīmāṃsā-vedānta-nārada-śāṇḍilya-bhakti-sūtra-gītā-vālmīkīya-rāmāyaṇa-bhāgavatādi-siddhānta-bodha-puraḥ-sara-samadhikṛtāśeṣa-tulasī-dāsa-sāhitya-sauhitya-svādhyāya-pravacana-vyākhyāna-parama-pravīṇāḥ ): German nouns have a grammatical gender as. More than one stem or more sign stems multi-word expression ending is also permitted in other languages. Declensions in the dative case, but it occurs frequently after nouns which do not take declensions in the tradition... Class is determined lexically, disregarding the class of the whole compound, and moulin à vent '! Of constituents in phrases where nouns are modified by adjectives, by possessors, by other nouns ''. Which do not take declensions in the accusative or singular dative cases the class...

german compound words wikipedia

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